COVID-19 through adverse outcome pathways: Building networks to better understand the disease – 3rd CIAO AOP Design Workshop

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Laure-Alix Clerbaux
Núria Amigó
Maria João Amorim
Anna Bal-Price
Sofia Batista Leite
Anna Beronius
Gillina F. G. Bezemer
Ann-Charlotte Bostroem
Annamaria Carusi
Sandra Coecke
Rachel Concha
Evangelos P. Daskalopoulos
Francesca De Bernardi
Eizleayne Edrosa
Steve W. Edwards
Julija Filipovska
Natàlia Garcia-Reyero
Felicity N. E. Gavins
Sabina Halappanavar
Alan J. Hargreaves
Helena T. Hogberg
Mylène T. Huynh
Daniel Jacobson
Jonathan Josephs-Spaulding
Young Jun Kim
Hyun Joon Kong
Catharine E. Krebs
Ann Lam
Brigitte Landesmann
Adrienne Racanelli Layton
Yong Oh Lee
Donna S. Macmillan
Alberto Mantovani
Luigi Margiotta-Casaluci
Marvin Martens
Rosalinde Masereeuw
Sally A. Mayasich
Liang Merlin Mei
Holly Mortensen
Amalia Munoz Pineiro
Penny Nymark
Elan Ohayon
Joshi Manoj Ojasi
Alicia Paini
Nikolaos Parissis
Surat Parvatam
Francesca Pistollato
Magdalini Sachana
Jorid Birkelund Sørli
Kristie M. Sullivan
Jukka Sund
Shihori Tanabe
Katya Tsaioun
Mathieu Vinken
Laura Viviani
Jennifer Waspe
Catherine Willett
Clemens Wittwehr


On April 28-29, 2021, 50 scientists from different fields of expertise met for the 3rd online CIAO workshop. The CIAO project “Modelling the Pathogenesis of COVID-19 using the Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework” aims at building a holistic assembly of the available scientific knowledge on COVID-19 using the AOP framework. An individual AOP depicts the disease progression from the initial contact with the SARS-CoV-2 virus through biological key events (KE) toward an adverse outcome such as respiratory distress, anosmia or multiorgan failure. Assembling the individual AOPs into a network highlights shared KEs as central biological nodes involved in multiple outcomes observed in COVID-19 patients. During the workshop, the KEs and AOPs established so far by the CIAO members were presented and posi­tioned on a timeline of the disease course. Modulating factors influencing the progression and severity of the disease were also addressed as well as factors beyond purely biological phenomena. CIAO relies on an interdisciplinary crowd­sourcing effort, therefore, approaches to expand the CIAO network by widening the crowd and reaching stakeholders were also discussed. To conclude the workshop, it was decided that the AOPs/KEs will be further consolidated, inte­grating virus variants and long COVID when relevant, while an outreach campaign will be launched to broaden the CIAO scientific crowd.

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Clerbaux, L.-A., Amigó, N., Amorim, M. J., Bal-Price, A., Batista Leite, S., Beronius, A., Bezemer, G. F. G., Bostroem, A.-C., Carusi, A., Coecke, S., Concha, R., Daskalopoulos, E. P., De Bernardi, F., Edrosa, E., Edwards, S. W., Filipovska, J., Garcia-Reyero, N., Gavins, F. N. E., Halappanavar, S., Hargreaves, A. J., Hogberg, H. T., Huynh, M. T., Jacobson, D., Josephs-Spaulding, J., Kim, Y. J., Kong, H. J., Krebs, C. E., Lam, A., Landesmann, B., Layton, A., Lee, Y. O., Macmillan, D. S., Mantovani, A., Margiotta-Casaluci, L., Martens, M., Masereeuw, R., Mayasich, S. A., Mei, L. M., Mortensen, H., Munoz Pineiro, A., Nymark, P., Ohayon, E., Ojasi, J., Paini, A., Parissis, N., Parvatam, S., Pistollato, F., Sachana, M., Sørli, J. B., Sullivan, K. M., Sund, J., Tanabe, S., Tsaioun, K., Vinken, M., Viviani, L., Waspe, J., Willett, C. and Wittwehr, C. (2022) “COVID-19 through adverse outcome pathways: Building networks to better understand the disease – 3rd CIAO AOP Design Workshop”, ALTEX - Alternatives to animal experimentation, 39(2), pp. 322–335. doi: 10.14573/altex.2112161.
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