Volume 23 - Spec. Issue - 2006



Opening Speeches

Renate Kuenast (Federal Minister of Consumer Protection, Food and Agriculture)
Jane Goodall (The Jane Goodall Institute)
Reiner Wittkowski (Vice President of the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment BfR)

Special Contributions

Thomas Hartung: ECVAM’s progress in implementing the 3Rs in Europe
Michael Balls: The three Rs: Looking back … and forward

Theme 1 Education

1.1 Session: Renement and reduction alternatives in education: Teaching humane science

Nicole E. Duffee: Online learning to teach humane science
Lynette A. Hart, Mary W. Wood and Hsin-Yi Weng: Three barriers obstructing mainstreaming alternatives in K-12 education
Jann Hau: Should live animals be used when educating future biomedical scientists?

1.2 Session: Replacement alternatives in education: Animal-free teaching

Miroslav Cervinka, Emil Rudolf and Zuzana Cervinkova: Alternatives to animal experimentation in undergraduate curricula at medical schools – analysis of current trends in the Czech Republic
Rooshin B. Dalal, Megha Shah Even, Chad B. Sandusky and Neal D. Barnard: University of Virginia Medical School replaces canine lab with human patient simulator
David Dewhurst, Stewart Cromar and Rachel Ellaway: RECAL: creating computer-assisted alternatives using a sustainable learning objects approach
Nick Jukes and Siri Martinsen: The InterNICHE policy on the use of animals and alternatives in education
Nick Jukes: Internationalising Alternatives in Higher Education

1.3 Workshop: Education in animal alternatives

Vera Baumans: Alternatives to the use of laboratory animals in veterinary education
Jasmijn de Boo and Andrew Knight: Educating the veterinary professional about animal welfare
Lynette A. Hart, Mary W. Wood and Hsin-Yi Weng: User-friendly curricula on alternatives for research scientists
Osvaldas Ruksenas: Animals and alternatives in biomedical education in the Baltics
Jan van der Valk: Educating scientists on alternatives. A continuous process
Neil Wells: The use of animals in research, testing and teaching in New Zealand –  a legal perspective

1.4 Workshop: Multi-media exhibition of alternatives in education

Karina Smith, Adrian Smith, Baard Johannessen and Arne Lie-Johannessen: The NORINA & TextBase website: New design and possibilities

Theme 2 Laboratory animal welfare and renement

2.1 Workshop: Environmental enrichment and housing standards

Timo Nevalainen, Niina Kemppinen and Anna Meller: Refinement alternative for animal housing – enrichment
Ping-Ping Tsai, Helge D. Stelzer, Anke Schraepler and Hansjoachim Hackbarth: Importance and effects of enrichment on physiology, behaviour and breeding performance in mice

2.2 Session: Pain, welfare and analgesia

Kathleen M. Conlee and Lesley A. Lambert: Workshop of experts: Definition, recognition, assessment, and alleviation of animal distress in the laboratory
Martin Sager: Use of analgesics in experiments

2.3 Session: Non-invasive approaches – new imaging and remote techniques (Doerenkamp-Zbinden Session)

Jens Frahm, Susann Boretius, Takashi Watanabe and Thomas Michaelis: Magnetic resonance imaging of animal brain in vivo

2.4 Session: Non-human primates – housing, enrichment, positive reinforcement training

Hannah M. Buchanan-Smith: Primates in laboratories: Standardisation, harmonisation, variation and science

Theme 3 Moral issues of animals, alternatives and public policy

3.1 Session: Inuencing and making public policy

Sara J. Amundson: Funding for research, development, validation and acceptance of alternatives must become transparent
Robert D. Combes: The OECD health effects test guidelines for REACH need updating
Ursula G. Sauer: Challenges and opportunities of animal welfare organisations in influencing and making public policy

3.2 Workshop: Establishing the 3Rs principle around the world

Andrzej Elzanowski: Establishing the three Rs principle: A plea for an international severity standard
Shiranee Pereira: Current status of establishing the 3Rs concept in India
Ekaterina A. B. Rivera: The 3 Rs in Brazil

3.4 Session: Policy implementation

Roman Kolar: Three years of animal welfare in the German constitution – the balance from an animal welfare perspective
Chad B. Sandusky, Megha Even, Kristie Stoick and Jessica Sandler: Strategies to reduce animal testing in US EPA’s HPV programme
Martin L. Stephens and Michael Balls: LD50 testing of Botulinum toxin for use as a cosmetic

3.5 Session: Ethical review – good practice and outputs

A. C. David Bayvel: The role and evolution of independent Government advisory committees: The New Zealand experience from 1985 to 2005
Timo Nevalainen, Anna Meller and Niina Kemppinen: Processes and policies for ethical evaluation in Nordic Countries and Europe
Virginia M. Williams, David J. Mellor and John Marbrook: Revision of a scale for assessing the severity of live animal manipulations
Flavia Zucco: A wider interpretation of the three Rs model

3.6 Session: Establishing the 3Rs Principle in Japan

Tsutomu Miki Kurosawa: Education in alternatives to animal experimentation

Theme 4 Information systems and databases

4.1 Session: 3Rs database and services – developments worldwide

Annett J. Roi and Manuela Flego: ECVAM’s database service on alternative methods (DB-ALM) – online

4.2 Session: Information retrieval – search strategies and search engines

Hua Florence Chang: Alternative search methods to retrieve information on the web
Barbara Grune, Amrei Schnock, Antje Dörendahl, Susanne Skolik and Horst Spielmann: Searching strategies for detecting publications on alternative methods: A pilot study
Jean A. Larson: The animal welfare information center: Helping the community meet the information requirement of the 3Rs
Mary W. Wood and Lynette A. Hart: Considering animal alternatives and welfare via a comprehensive search of the scientific literature

4.3 Workshop: Search strategies – user requirements

Jodie A. Kulpa-Eddy: Overview of the regulatory requirements for the consideration of alternatives

Theme 5 Safety testing, validation and risk assessment

5.01 Session: Strategies for using non-animal methods in relation to chemicals legislation (HPV, REACH, ECVAM-Session)

Wolf-Rüdiger Bias: REACH and CEFIC’s conception of a feasible, information and priority based approach
Uwe Lahl: Strategy for minimising the use of animal testing as part of REACH
Marilyn Wind, Bradley Blackard, Raymond Tice, William Stokes, David Hattan and Leonard M. Schechtman: ICCVAM’s role in validating in vitro test methods for endocrine disruptor screening

5.02 Session: New approaches to risk assessments (ESTIV-Session)

Michael Gülden and Hasso Seibert: In vitro-in vivo extrapolation of toxic potencies for hazard and risk assessment – problems and new developments

5.03 Session: Progress and needs for developing and validating alternatives for dermal sensitisation testing

Pierre Aeby, David Basketter, Walter Diembeck, Dietmar Eschrich, Frank Gerberick, Hiroshi Itagaki, Ian Kimber, Béatrice Le Varlet, Irene Manou, Marc Paye, Françoise Rousset, Joanna Rowland and Hitoshi Sakaguchi: Dendritic cell research projects
Maja Divkovic: Hapten-protein binding: What do we know?
Jean-Pierre Lepoittevin: The chemistry of skin allergy

5.05 Session: Advancements and needs for developing and validating 3R alternatives for ocular irritancy testing

Matthias Herzler, Horst Spielmann, Ingrid Gerner, Manfred Liebsch and Thomas Hoefer: Use of in vitro data and (Q)SARs to classify eye irritating chemicals in the EU – experience at the BfR
Jill Merrill, Karen Hamernik, Leonard M. Schechtman, William Stokes and Marilyn Wind: ICCVAM progress in evaluating in vitro test methods for identifying severe ocular irritants/corrosives

5.06 Session: In vitro approaches for determining acute systemic toxicity

Bas J. Blaauboer, Joop Hermens  and Jan van Eijkeren: Estimating acute toxicity based on in vitro cytotoxicity: Role of biokinetic modelling
Cecilia Clemedson, Bas Blaauboer, José Castell, Pilar Prieto, Leila Risteli, Joan-Albert Vericat and Albrecht Wendel: AcuteTox – optimating and pre-validation of an in vitro test strategy for predicting human acute toxicity
Claus-Michael Lehr, Michael Bur and Ulrich F. Schaefer: Cell culture models of the air-blood barrier for the evaluation of aerosol medicines

5.07 Session: Progress in quality assurance for in vitro alternative studies

Mahtab Bahramsoltani, Sabine Käßmeyer and Johanna Plendl: A novel quantitative in vitro model of angiogenesis
Michael Balls, Sandra Coecke, Gerard Bowe, John Davis, Gerhard Gstraunthaler, Thomas Hartung, Robert Hay, Otto-Wilhelm Merten, Anna Price, Leonard M. Schechtman, Glyn Stacey and William Stokes: The importance of Good Cell Culture Practice (GCCP)
Gerhard Gstraunthaler: Standardisation in cell and tissue culture. The need for specific GLP guidelines in the cell culture laboratory (Good Cell Culture Practice – GCCP)
Amy S. Rispin and Katherine Stitzel: Ensuring quality of in vitro alternative test methods

5.08 Session: Challenges in food toxicity testing

Patrick O’Mahony and Alan Reilly: Safety assessment of genetically modified (GM) foods

5.09 Session: Biologicals and vaccines: Progress and new approaches

Marie-Emmanuelle Behr-Gross: Development of alternatives for quality control of biomedicines: The example of vaccines for human use
Marie-Emmanuelle Behr-Gross and Jean-Marc Spieser: Contributions of the European OMCL network and biological standardisation programme to animal welfare
Jodie A. Kulpa-Eddy: USDA 3Rs initiatives in veterinary biologics

5.10 Workshop; Ecotoxicity – applying the 3Rs

Argelia Castaño: Applying the three Rs in acute ecotoxicity
Anne Kahru: Ecotoxicological tests in non-ecotoxicological research: Contribution to the three Rs
Shinobu Wakuri, Yutaka Matsumoto, Makoto Hayashi and Noriho Tanaka: Application of in vitro alternative methods to ecotoxicology

5.11 Workshop: Mechanisms of chemically-induced ocular injury and recovery

Monica Berry and Marcus Radburn-Smith: Ocular toxicology in vitro – cell based assays
Mike Boulton and Mike Wride: Can toxicogenomics be used to identify chemicals that cause ocular injury?
Karen Hamernik, Chantra Eskes, Jill Merrill, Neepa Choksi, David Allen, James Truax, Raymond Tice, Marilyn Wind, Leonard M. Schechtman and William Stokes: ICCVAM-NICEATM-ECVAM symposium on mechanisms of chemically-induced ocular injury and recovery: Current understanding and knowledge gaps
Penny Jones, Dan Bagley, Claudine Faller, Beatrice Le Varlet, Pauline McNamee, Irene Manou, Wolfgang Pape, Christine Van den Berghe and Freddy Van Goethem: An overview of the COLIPA eye irritation research programme

5.12 Workshop: Toxicogenomics – potential, validation and case studies

Stephen Abel, Yi Yang and Jeffrey F. Waring: Development of an in vitro gene expression assay for predicting hepatotoxicity

5.13 Workshop: Strategies for prioritising and streamlining the validation process

Michael Balls and Robert Combes: Validation via weight-of-evidence approaches
Leonard M. Schechtman, Marilyn L. Wind and William S. Stokes: Streamlining the validation process: The ICCVAM nomination and submission process and guidelines for new, revised and alternative test methods
William S. Stokes, Leonard M. Schechtman, Amy Rispin, Kailash Gupta, Karen Hamernik, Raymond Tice and Marilyn Wind: The use of test method performance standards to streamline the validation process

5.14 Workshop: Meeting the challenge of the 7th amendment to the EU cosmetics directive (COLIPA Workshop)

Vera Rogiers and Marleen Pauwels: Good science must be the key factor in the development and use of alternative methods for safety assessment of cosmetics

5.15 Workshop: In vitro metabolism: Applications in pharmacology and toxicology

Angelika Langsch and Heinz Nau: Metabolic activation for in vitro systems

5.16 Workshop: Reproductive toxicology – the EU ReProTect project

Tina Mose and Lisbeth Ehlert Knudsen: Placental perfusion – a human alternative

Theme 6 Modelling

6.1 Session: QSAR approach: Acceptance and implementation

Mark T. D. Cronin: The use of in silico technologies to predict toxicity and fate: Implementation and acceptance
Gilman D. Veith: Roles for QSAR in risk assessment

6.2 Session: Biokinetic modelling in silico

Raymond S. H. Yang, Arthur N. Mayeno, Kai H. Liao, Kenneth F. Reardon and Brad Reisfeld: Integration of PBPK and reaction network modelling: Predictive xenobiotic metabolomics

6.3 Session: Computational toxicology

Hiroyoshi Toyoshiba, Hideko Sone, Fred Parham, Richard D. Irwin, Gary A. Boorman and Christopher J. Portier: Comparative analysis of gene networks at multiple doses and time points in livers of rats exposed to acetaminophen

Theme 7 Applying new science and technology

7.0 Plenary

Decio L. Eizirik: Using genomics and systems biology to address complex problems: Pancreatic beta cell apoptosis in Diabetes mellitus

7.1 Session: Stem cell technology in toxicity testing

Aernout Luttun and Catherine M. Verfaillie: A perspective on stem cells as a tool for in vitro testing
Andrea Seiler, Roland Buesen, Katrin Hayess, Katharina Schlechter, Anke Visan, Elke Genschow, Birgitta Slawik and Horst Spielmann: Current status of the embryonic stem cell test: The use of recent advances in the field of stem cell technology and gene expression analysis
Sarah Snykers, Tamara Vanhaecke, Peggy Papeleu, Tom Henkens, Mathieu Vinken, Greetje Elaut, Ivan Van Riet and Vera Rogiers: In vitro multipotency of human bone marrow (mesenchymal) stem cells

7.2 Session: Innovative approaches for alternative methods development

Eric Campbell, Craig Slattery, Niamh Tuite, Stephen Nolan, Martin Leonard, Michael P. Ryan and Tara McMorrow: RNA interference: A novel alternative approach in nephrotoxicity studies
Alexandra Gramowski, Simone Stüwe, Konstantin Jügelt, Dietmar Schiffmann, Jan Loock, Olaf Schröder, Guenter W. Gross and Dieter G. Weiss: Detecting neurotoxicity through electrical activity changes of neuronal networks on multielectrode neurochips

7.3 Session: The contribution of the “OMICS”-technology to the 3Rs

Paolo Cinelli, Margarete Arras and Kurt Bürki: Detection of pain and stress by monitoring gene expression

7.4 Session: Non-invasive techniques for monitoring and imaging (Doerenkamp-Zbinden Symposium)

Nicolau Beckmann, Harry Karmouty Quintana, François-Xavier Blé, Catherine Cannet, Stefan Zurbruegg, Bruno Tigani and John Fozard: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lung as a tool for the non-invasive evaluation of drugs in rat models of airways diseases

7.5 Session: Novel cell culture techniques

Richard Clothier, Jonathan Crookdale, Jessica Morgan, Lucy Fitzgerald and Pauline Moore: Modelling long-term repeat-dose toxicity – challenges faced
Celia P. Martínez-Jiménez, María J. Gómez-Lechón, José V. Castell and Ramiro Jover: Engineering human hepatoma cells with key transcription factors to generate metabolically competent hepatic models
Tamara Vanhaecke, Mathieu Vinken, Tom Henkens, Sarah Snykers, Greetje Elaut, Peggy Papeleu and Vera Rogiers: Effects of trichostatin A on apoptosis-regulating proteins during hepatocyte isolation

7.6 Session: Non-genotoxic carcinogenicity: Mechanistic perspectives for alternatives

Andrew Knight, Jarrod Bailey and Jonathan Balcombe: Cancerous contradictions: The mis-regulation of human carcinogens based on animal data
Makoto Umeda: Detection of non-genotoxic carcinogens using ras-transfected Bhas 42 cells
Mathieu Vinken, Tamara Vanhaecke, Peggy Papeleu, Sarah Snykers, Tom Henkens, Greetje Elaut, James Kevin Chipman and Vera Rogiers: A study of connexin expression in monolayer cultures of primary rat hepatocytes